That evening, Catherine held a meeting at the Tuileries Palace with her Italian advisers, including Albert de Gondi, Comte de Retz. The Council of Trent (meets 1545-1563) [55] On the other hand, the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian II, King Charles's father-in-law, was sickened, describing the massacre as a "shameful bloodbath". Even within the Louvre, Navarres attendants were slaughtered, though Navarre and Henry I de Bourbon, 2nd prince de Cond, were spared. Henry VIII and the Act of Supremacy (1529-34) Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent Read online (or offline) with all the highlighting and notetaking tools you need to be successful in this course. [59], The massacre "spawned a pullulating mass of polemical literature, bubbling with theories, prejudices and phobias". The Vincentian ambassador in Washington, D. C. is the official representative of the Government in the Kingstown to the Government of the United States. The first round, Germany : Lutherans vs. Catholics Updates? 1) Purchase valued. The failed assassination of Admiral de Coligny on 22 August 1572. The Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, Aug. 24, 1572 As recorded by statesman and historian, De Thou (1553-1617), who was a witness to the events on St. Bartholomew Day as a youth. King from 1556 to 1598. [91] Viewed as a threat to the social and political order, Holt argues that "Huguenots not only had to be exterminated that is, killed they also had to be humiliated, dishonoured, and shamed as the inhuman beasts they were perceived to be. The execution decision was therefore his own, and not Catherine de' Medici's. The Huguenot political movement was crippled by the loss of many of its prominent aristocratic leaders, and many rank-and-file members subsequently converted. The Catholic response to a Huguenot plot / Claude Haton (1572) -- 18. Despite the firm opposition of the Queen Mother and the King, Anjou, Lieutenant General of the Kingdom, present at this meeting of the council, could see a good occasion to make a name for himself with the government. Amongst other things, Catherine reportedly feared that Coligny's influence would drag France into a war with Spain over the Netherlands. They were ordered to shut the city gates and arm the citizenry to prevent any attempt at a Protestant uprising. The site is now 144, Holt (2005 edn), pp. It was remade in 1994 as La Reine Margot (later as Queen Margot, and subtitled, in English-language markets), starring Isabelle Adjani. Jesuit general from 1565 to 1572. Nowhere was this system more fully and expertly articulated than by the Republic of Venice in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. [7], Compounding this bad feeling was the fact that the harvests had been poor and taxes had risen. Recovery of cost from Governmentwide Commercial, "in step 12 of the governmentwide commercial purchase card program process, what are three situations in which the acceptor must ensure written independent receipt and acceptance?" The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre ( French: Massacre de la Saint-Barthlemy) in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) during the French Wars of Religion. C. The third round, France : Calvinists vs. Catholics According to the contemporary French historian Jacques Auguste de Thou, one of Coligny's murderers was struck by how calmly he accepted his fate, and remarked that "he never saw anyone less afraid in so great a peril, nor die more steadfastly". He describes how the religious divide, which gave the Huguenots different patterns of dress, eating and pastimes, as well as the obvious differences of religion and (very often) class, had become a social schism or cleavage. The king's Swiss mercenaries were given the task of killing a list of leading Protestants. To placate the angry Huguenots, the government agreed to investigate the assassination attempt. She accordingly gave her approval to a plot that the Roman Catholic house of Guise had been hatching to assassinate Coligny, whom it held responsible for the murder of Franois de Guise in 1563. FROM A Venetian Ambassador's Report on the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre The struggle for supremacy in northern Italy, which marked the last half of the fif- teenth century, gave rise to a new form of diplomacy, including structures and pro- cedures that would be fundamental to relations among all modern states. Javascript is not enabled in your browser. [92], Some, like Leonie Frieda, emphasise the element within the mob violence of the "haves" being "killed by the 'have-nots'". [8] The rise in food prices and the luxury displayed on the occasion of the royal wedding increased tensions among the common people. The Guises were not prepared to make way for their rivals, the House of Montmorency. AUGUST 24, 1572-ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY by the Catholic calendar-is an . After St. Bartholomew's the Huguenots, though bereft of their leaders, rushed to arms. Mons; Sommires; Sancerre; La Rochelle, War of the Three Henrys (158589) Coutras; Vimory; Day of the Barricades, Succession of Henry IV of France (158994) Thus, some modern historians have stressed the critical and incendiary role that militant preachers played in shaping ordinary lay beliefs, both Catholic and Protestant. We are happy to offer free Achieve access in addition to the physical sample you have selected. Henry VIII (king of England, 1509-1547) Anjou's supposed account was the source of the quotation attributed to Charles IX: "Well then, so be it! 3. Gregory XIII (1572 to 1585) Francis Borgia (1510 -1572). [101] Millais was inspired to create the painting after seeing Meyerbeer's Les Huguenots. The Guises, who were highly popular, exploited this situation to put pressure on the King and the Queen Mother. Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes (1598). From The Religious Peace of Augsburg, Reform in the Catholic World 8891 (quotation from p. 91), Foa, Jrmie, "Tous ceux qui tombent. Louis governed the Principality of Orange around Avignon in southern France for his brother William the Silent, who was leading the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish. The future Pope Gregory served as a legate to Philip II of Spain, being sent by Pope Pius V to investigate the Cardinal of Toledo. Brad Pennington Western Civ Chapter 14: Giovanni Michiel from A Venetian Ambassador's Report on the St. Bartholomew's Don't leave a single one alive to reproach me! In the Jew of Malta (158990) "Machievel" in person speaks the Prologue, claiming to not be dead, but to have possessed the soul of the Duke of Guise, "And, now the Guise is dead, is come from France/ To view this land, and frolic with his friends" (Prologue, lines 34)[74] His last play, The Massacre at Paris (1593) takes the massacre, and the following years, as its subject, with Guise and Catherine both depicted as Machiavellian plotters, bent on evil from the start. 2. [85] Diefendorf says that when the head of the murdered Coligny was shown to the Paris mob by a member of the nobility, with the claim that it was the King's will, the die was cast. Drypoint Screenprinting Intaglio Lithography Question 2 Which of the following fabrics is NOT a good option, Which three of the following statements about convenience checks are true? "Many Protestant houses were burned, invoking the traditional purification by fire of all heretics. Sample this version now as opposed to waiting for the physical edition. The Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913 was still ready to endorse a version of this view, describing the massacres as "an entirely political act committed in the name of the immoral principles of Machiavellianism" and blaming "the pagan theories of a certain raison d'tat according to which the end justified the means". This was the fourth civil war, and centred about a few fortified towns, such as La Rochelle, Montauban, and Nmes. [14], Tensions were further raised when in May 1572 the news reached Paris that a French Huguenot army under Louis of Nassau had crossed from France to the Netherlandish province of Hainaut and captured the Catholic strongholds of Mons and Valenciennes (now in Belgium and France, respectively). Essay Question, Category A Giovanni Michiel, "A Venetian Ambassador's Report on the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre," Perspectives From the Past, pp 484-486.1) After reading Michiel's account, who do you think who is responsible for the St. Massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day, massacre of French Huguenots (Protestants) in Paris on August 24/25, 1572, plotted by Catherine de' Medici and carried out by Roman Catholic nobles and other citizens. Bloodshed continued in Paris even after a royal order of August 25 to stop the killing, and it spread to the provinces. The attempt on Admiral Colignys life four days later failed; he was only wounded. Richard Verstegan, Horrible Cruelties of the Huguenots in France, 1587 . A 1966 serial in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who entitled The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve is set during the events leading up to the Paris massacre. "Jean-Antoine de Baf and the Saint-Barthlemy", Anglo, 229; See also: Butterfield, H. "Acton and the Massacre of St Bartholomew,", The first occurrence of the royal injunction is found late in, Anglo, p. 283, see also the whole chapter. St. Bartholomew's Day massacre; File:Giorgio Vasari San Bartolomeo.jpg; File usage on other wikis. Many victims were also thrown into the Seine, invoking the purification by water of Catholic baptism". 1) Funds must be available to cover the check value and the bank's processing fee 2) The Cardholder can dispute a. Protestant countries were horrified at the events, and only the concentrated efforts of Catherine's ambassadors, including a special mission by Gondi, prevented the collapse of her policy of remaining on good terms with them. [27] According to some interpretations, the survival of these Huguenots was a key point in Catherine's overall scheme, to prevent the House of Guise from becoming too powerful. The tasks of a permanent ambassador were to represent his government at state ceremonies, to gather information, and, occasionally, to enter negotiations. She, supposed his words had different meanings that alluded to his plan to stir up new storms and. The common people began to hunt Protestants throughout the city, including women and children. Copyright 2001-2023 OCLC. [13] Thus, the massacre "marked the beginning of a new form of French Protestantism: one that was openly at war with the crown. About twelve thousand Huguenots were killed between August 25 and October 3. Christians did things which the Gospel condemns. Shortly before dawn on August 24 the bell of Saint-Germain-lAuxerrois began to toll and the massacre began. Review and, 1.Which printmaking process is the most direct for translating the gestures of the hand? For Le Monde, Youness Bousenna interviews Jrmie Foa, current Member in the School of Historical Studies, about his book on the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre:. [57] Protestant countries were horrified at the events, and only the concentrated efforts of Catherine's ambassadors, including a special mission by Gondi, prevented the collapse of her policy of remaining on good terms with them. Please enable JavaScript on your browser. Ordinary lay Catholics were involved in the mass killings; they believed they were executing the wishes of the king and of God. Those who remained became increasingly radicalized. How Did the Massacre of St. Bartholomews Day Start? [21] Other historians are reluctant to speculate on the composition or size of the group of leaders targeted at this point, beyond the few obvious heads. The Venetian Senate, Letter to the Venetian Ambassadors in France, 1572 . Cavalli, the Venetian Ambassador, maintained in his report that the king held out for an hour and a half, finally yielding because of Catherine's threat to leave France and the fear that his brother, the Duke of Anjou, might be named captain-general of the Catholics. One of the first victims was Coligny, who was killed under the supervision of Henry de Guise himself. Though by no means unique, the bloodletting "was the worst of the century's religious massacres". Family feuds and confessional choices Many Protestants were nobles or bourgeois and Frieda adds that "a number of bourgeois Catholic Parisians had suffered the same fate as the Protestants; many financial debts were wiped clean with the death of creditors and moneylenders that night". Under the terms of the peace, and after considerable popular resistance, this had been removed in December 1571 (and re-erected in a cemetery), which had already led to about 50 deaths in riots, as well as mob destruction of property. The Venetian Senate, Letter to the Venetian Ambassadors in France, 1572 . [28], Although Charles had dispatched orders to his provincial governors on August 24 to prevent violence and maintain the terms of the 1570 edict,[29] from August to October, similar massacres of Huguenots took place in a total of twelve other cities: Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lyon, Bourges, Rouen,[30] He contacted the Parisian authorities and another ambitious young man, running out of authority and power, Duke Henri de Guise (whose uncle, the clear-sighted Charles, cardinal of Lorraine, was then detained in Rome). A rich, relevant collection of primary sources at an exceptional value Perspectives from the Past: Primary Sources in Western Civilizations features a diverse range of primary sources, offering a total of 251 classic and contemporary documents of varying length, as well as images. By focusing on describing the political and religious context for the massacre at the, beginning, the author demonstrates the severity of the event. [11], In the years preceding the massacre, Huguenot political rhetoric had for the first time taken a tone against not just the policies of a particular monarch of France, but monarchy in general. 3. The massacre caused a "major international crisis". ), p. 91. Paperback. [72] In fact there is little trace of Machiavelli in French writings before the massacre, and not very much after, until Gentillet's own book, but this concept was seized upon by many contemporaries, and played a crucial part in setting the long-lasting popular concept of Machiavellianism. Catherine de' Medici might say that the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day was never intended to happen. 1 Two . Cavalli, the Venetian Ambassador, maintained in his report that the king held out for an hour and a half, finally yielding because of Catherine's threat to leave France and the fear that his brother, the Duke of Anjou, might be named captain-general of the Catholics. See also: Pearl, Jonathan L. (1998), Holt (2005 ed. [36], In the cities affected, the loss to the Huguenot communities after the massacres was numerically far larger than those actually killed; in the following weeks there were mass conversions to Catholicism, apparently in response to the threatening atmosphere for Huguenots in these cities. Useful pedagogic aids include headnotes and gloss notes to the documents, a list of major figures, a chronology of key events, questions for consideration, a selected bibliography, and an index. Another historian Mack P. Holt, Professor at George Mason University, agrees that Vigor, "the best known preacher in Paris", preached sermons that were full of references to the evils that would befall the capital should the Protestants seize control. 8283, and Lincoln, p. 96, and Knecht (2001), p. 361, Knecht (2001), p. 364. The murder of thousands of French Protestants by Catholics in August 1572 influenced not only the subsequent course of France's civil wars and state building, but also patterns of international alliance and long-standing cultural values across Europe. The homes and shops of Huguenots were pillaged and their occupants brutally murdered; many bodies were thrown into the Seine. He is the author of, Perspectives from the Past: Primary Sources in Western Civilizations / Edition 7, Learn how to enable JavaScript on your browser. But kill them all! With these words, the most popular preacher in Paris legitimised in advance the events of St. Bartholomew's Day". 1. Christopher Marlowe was one of many Elizabethan writers who were enthusiastic proponents of these ideas. He wrote a strongly anti-Catholic and anti-French play based on the events entitled The Massacre at Paris. Other theories about who was ultimately responsible for the attack centre on three candidates: The attempted assassination of Coligny triggered the crisis that led to the massacre. The Catholic Reformation It was one event in the series of civil wars between Roman Catholics and Huguenots that beset France in the late 16th century. [24][pageneeded] The tension that had been building since the Peace of St. Germain now exploded in a wave of popular violence. Impact California Social Studies World History, Culture, and Geography The Modern World The story was also taken up in 1772 by Louis-Sbastien Mercier in his play Jean Hennuyer, Bishop of Lizieux, unperformed until the French Revolution. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Prior to certifying the Managing Accounting Billing Statement for contract payments by Governmentwide Commercial Purchase Card, the Approving/ Billing Official must do what two things? Whitehead, Barbara (1994), "Revising the Revisionists," in: The subject of Butterfield's chapter, referenced below. German leagues at war vs. Charles V The murder of thous We are processing your request. The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572) The featured documents offer a rich array of sources on the conflict -- including royal edicts, popular songs, polemics, eyewitness accounts, memoirs, paintings, and engravings -- to enable students to explore the massacre, the nature of church-state relations, the moral responsibility of secular and religious authorities, and the origins and consequences of religious persecution and intolerance in this period. 9394, and Benedict (2004), p. 127, Knecht (2001), p. 368, though see Holt (2005), pp. Summary: A riveting account of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, its origins, and its aftermath, this volume by Barbara B. Diefendorf introduces students to the most notorious episode in France's sixteenth century civil and religious wars and an event of lasting historical importance. Massacre of St. Bartholomews Day, massacre of French Huguenots (Protestants) in Paris on August 24/25, 1572, plotted by Catherine de Medici and carried out by Roman Catholic nobles and other citizens. For the, Attempted assassination of Admiral de Coligny, Holt (2005), pp. Both the Pope and King Philip II of Spain strongly condemned Catherine's Huguenot policy as well. Read and study old-school with our bound texts. Historian Barbara B. Diefendorf, Professor of History at Boston University, wrote that Simon Vigor had "said if the King ordered the Admiral (Coligny) killed, 'it would be wicked not to kill him'. After the wedding of Catholic Marguerite de Valois and Huguenot Henry de Navarre on August 18 of 1572,[17] Coligny and the leading Huguenots remained in Paris to discuss some outstanding grievances about the Peace of St. Germain with the king. This peace, however, was precarious since the more intransigent Catholics refused to accept it. A. That was interpreted by the Parisians as a sign of divine blessing and approval to these multiple murders,[22] and on the same day at night, a group led by Guise in person dragged Admiral Coligny from his bed, killed him, and threw his body out of a window. The dates are in Garrison, p. 139, who adds, Holt (2005 ed. [89] Some blame the complete esteem with which the sovereign's office was held, justified by prominent French Roman Catholic theologians, and that the special powers of French Kings "were accompanied by explicit responsibilities, the foremost of which was combating heresy". 7879; Calvin's book was "Praelectiones in librum prophetiarum Danielis", Geneva and, Garrisson, pp. 2013, St Bartholomew's Day Massacre in the Provinces, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "From Marriage to Massacre: The Louvre in August 1572", "Gaspard II de Coligny, seigneur de Chtillon | French admiral and Huguenot leader | Britannica", "Le massacre de la Saint-Barthlemy: l'obsession de la souillure hrtique", The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda, The Cambridge Modern History Volume III: Wars of Religion, Russia self-condemned, secret and inedited documents connected with Russian history and diplomacy, "Vigil Address of the Holy Father John Paul II", "The Doctor Who Transcripts The Massacre of St Bartholomew's Eve",, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Articles needing additional references from November 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, France articles missing geocoordinate data, Articles missing coordinates without coordinates on Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0. In his Histoire vritable de la ville de Lyon, the memorialist and former consul (town councillor) Claude de Rubys devoted just a few lines to the events of late August 1572, when the Saint Bartholomew's Day massacres had reached Lyon. Henry of Guise then planned an attack on all protestants. [34] In some cities the massacres were led by the mob, while the city authorities tried to suppress them, and in others small groups of soldiers and officials began rounding up Protestants with little mob involvement. Earlier Huguenot rage at Nimes (in 1567) led to the massacre of twenty-four Catholics, mostly priests and prominent laymen, at the hands of their Protestant neighbours. Omissions? The Elizabethan dramatist Christopher Marlowe knew the story well from the Huguenot literature translated into English, and probably from French refugees who had sought refuge in his native Canterbury. The massacre caused a "major international crisis". He stayed in Paris for three days and made eleven speeches. God grant that he may not, be caught up in another which he cannot avoid, this controversial saying by Admiral. Political Responses . Soon afterward both sides prepared for a fourth civil war, which began before the end of the year. The corpses floating down the Rhne from Lyon are said to have put the people of Arles off drinking the water for three months. 34. Modern historians are still divided over the responsibility of the royal family: The traditional interpretation makes Catherine de' Medici and her Catholic advisers the principal culprits in the execution of the principal military leaders. -The Huguenot faction was fatally wounded. [75] By this period the Massacre was being widely used by Voltaire (in his Henriade) and other Enlightenment writers in polemics against organized religion in general. In the third episode of the BBC miniseries Elizabeth R (1971), starring Glenda Jackson as Queen Elizabeth I of England, the English court's reaction to the massacre and its effect on England's relations with France is addressed in depth. [94], The historian H.G. Third; 15681570 This article is about the historical event. The story was fictionalised by Prosper Mrime in his Chronique du rgne de Charles IX (1829), and by Alexandre Dumas, pre in La Reine Margot, an 1845 novel that fills in the history as it was then seen with romance and adventure. FROM A Venetian Ambassador's Report on the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre 589,. Anonymous, A German Print of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre . [47] For Paris, the only hard figure is a payment by the city to workmen for collecting and burying 1,100 bodies washed up on the banks of the Seine downstream from the city in one week. [31] In most of them, the killings swiftly followed the arrival of the news of the Paris massacre, but in some places there was a delay of more than a month. Koenigsberger (who until his retirement in 1984 was Professor of History at King's College, University of London) wrote that the Massacre was deeply disturbing because "it was Christians massacring other Christians who were not foreign enemies but their neighbours with which they and their forebears had lived in a Christian community, and under the same ruler, for a thousand years". People This was much more than a war against the policies of the crown, as in the first three civil wars; it was a campaign against the very existence of the Gallican monarchy itself". [citation needed] Elizabeth I of England's ambassador to France at that time, Sir Francis Walsingham, barely escaped with his life. [49], The French 18th-century historian Louis-Pierre Anquetil, in his Esprit de la Ligue of 1767, was among the first to begin impartial historical investigation, emphasizing the lack of premeditation (before the attempt on Coligny) in the massacre and that Catholic mob violence had a history of uncontrollable escalation. Though no details of the meeting survive, Charles IX and his mother apparently made the decision to eliminate the Protestant leaders. Catherine de Medici, the mother of Charles, feared Admiral Colignys growing influence over her son. To which is added, the Description of a New Blazing World 567, Ren Descartes From Discourse on Method and Meditations on First Philosophy 575, Isaac Newton From Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy 579, Illustration from Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamensium (1705) 581, John Locke From An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 583, A rich, relevant collection of primary sources at an exceptional value, James Brophy is the Francis H. Squire Professor of History specializing in modern European history at the University of Delaware. [62], Diplomatic correspondence was readier than published polemics to recognise the unplanned and chaotic nature of the events,[63] which also emerged from several accounts in memoirs published over the following years by witnesses to the events at court, including the famous Memoirs of Margaret of Valois, the only eye-witness account of the massacre from a member of the royal family. [45] At the higher end are total figures of up to 20,000,[46] or 30,000 in total, from "a contemporary, non-partisan guesstimate" quoted by the historians Felipe Fernndez-Armesto and D. Thenceforth the Huguenots abandoned John Calvins principle of obedience to the civil magistratethat is, to the royal authorityand adopted the view that rebellion and tyrannicide were justifiable under certain circumstances. Became a Roman Catholic to bring political peace to his country Guise Family Leaders of the Roman Catholic faction during the Wars of Religion on France What was significant about the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre to the Wars of Religion on France? [96], One historian puts forward an analysis of the massacre in terms of social anthropology the religious historian Bruce Lincoln. Report by the merchants' provost (Aug. 23, 1572) -- 19. Estimates of the number that perished in the massacres have varied from 2,000 by a Roman Catholic apologist to 70,000 by the contemporary Huguenot Maximilien de Bthune, who himself barely escaped death. "[91], However Raymond Mentzer points out that Protestants "could be as bloodthirsty as Catholics. Historian Jrmie Foa offers a very unique view of the 1572 massacres in his work entitled Tous ceux qui tombent: visages du massacre de la Saint-Barthlemy [All that fall: faces of the St. Bartholomew's day massacre]. Related Documents (Brophy reader) According to 10 United States Code 2784, which two of the following could result from a Governmentwide Commercial Purchase Card Program violation? Revolutionary Violence in Elizabeth Inchbald's, Letters from Earth. Encouraged by Catholic preachers, they were horrified at the marriage of a princess of France to a Protestant. 34. [81][pageneeded], According to Jean-Louis Bourgeon, the violently anti-Huguenot city of Paris was really responsible. A riveting account of the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre, its origins, and its aftermath, this volume by Barbara B. Diefendorf introduces students to the most notorious episode in Frances sixteenth century civil and religious wars and an event of lasting historical importance. Also, in his biography The World of Christopher Marlowe, David Riggs claims the incident remained with the playwright, and massacres are incorporated into the final acts of three of his early plays, 1 and 2 Tamburlaine and The Jew of Malta see above for Marlowe and Machiavellism. 1st Edition ISBN: 9780547034997 Dahia Ibo Shabaka, Larry S. Krieger, Linda Black, Phillip C. Naylor, Roger B. Beck. Huguenots in Rouen, Lyon, Bourges, Orlans, and Bordeaux were among the victims. [83][pageneeded], Traditional histories have tended to focus more on the roles of the political notables whose machinations began the massacre than the mindset of those who actually did the killing.
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